The Human Brain : From Neurone to Nervous System


  1. Normal movement involves changes in posture, maintenance of balance, and mechanisms that place the limbs and fingers precisely where they are needed. The basal ganglia are responsible for the planning, initiation, sequencing and smooth coordination of muscular activity.

  2. The inputs to the corpus striatum arise from the cerebral cortex. Information is fed by direct or indirect pathways to the globus pallidus interna, where it is relayed to the thalamus and onwards to the cortex.

  3. The indirect pathway involves reciprocal connections between the globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus.

  4. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra to the striatum facilitates the direct pathway, but inhibits the indirect pathway. This nigro-striatal pathway degenerates in Parkinson's disease.

  5. Deep Brain Stimulation is a technique for applying electrical stimuli to small regions of the brain. Deep Brain Stimuation of the Globus Pallidus Interna, Subthalamic Nucleus or Thalamus are used as a treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

The Basal Ganglia: Corpus Striatum, Globus Pallidus, Substantia Nigra, Subthalamic Nucleus; Deep Brain Stimulation