The Human Brain : From Neurone to Nervous System


  1. Speech is essential for communication and depends on the ability to produce complex sequences of movements of the vocal cords, tongue, lips, soft palate and other structures, coordinated by Broca's area of the frontal lobe.

  2. The complex sounds are generated by Broca's speech area, within the frontal lobe; it is adjacent to lateral part of the motor cortex (M1) which projects to the cranial nerves innervating many of the structures involved in vocalisation.

  3. In the majority of people, the Speech area is in the left hemsphere. The complex sequences of movements coordinated by Broca's area utilise auditory feedback from Wernicke's area at the temporo-parietal junction, adjacent to the primary auditory area.

  4. Key Words: Vocal Cords, oro-pharynx, cranial nerves, Broca's area, Wernicke's area, Arcuate fasciculus